|Category: Technical Papers|
|Technical Papers||Files: 20|
|2010 - March - Robinson - Growing a Good Safety Culture in Railway Signalling|
Dr. Neil J Robinson, CEng, PhD, CITP, MBCS, BSc(Hons)
Head of Systems Assurance, Ansaldo STS.
Adjunct Professor, School of Information Technology & Electrical
Engineering, The University of Queensland.
An organisation's "Safety Culture" is generally defined as "the way we do things round here" with respect to safety. There are several human-factor driven frameworks [5,6,14], available for describing the Safety Culture concept in much more detail. Many of these frameworks define levels of Safety Culture that can be used by organisations as paths for an improvement program.
All the definitions of Safety Culture agree that a Safety Culture is more than just a safety management system. It emerges from the systems, practices and people that make up an organisation. But, if having a safety management system, even one that includes controls designed to encourage a good Safety Culture, is not enough to create a good Safety Culture, then what should an organisation do? And specifically, what should a railway signalling organisation do?
In this paper we briefly define what is meant by a Safety Culture, with reference to the literature. We review the work that has been done in the UK, Australia and elsewhere on reviewing and improving Safety Cultures in the railway industry, and comment on how that work relates to railway signalling. For example, many railway organisations in Australia have already used the UK RSSB railway Safety Culture toolkit  to conduct surveys and report on the maturity of their Safety Culture.
We consider how these Safety Culture models apply to engineering of safety-critical systems, and, more specifically, how they apply to railway signal engineering.
|2010 - March - Neist - Keynote Address IRSE AGM & Technical Meeting Brisbane|
Len Neist Chief Executive ITSRR
Thank you for the invitation and opportunity to present a paper at your Annual General Meeting. One of the most significant safety risks that require constant attention and investment in improvement is the risk of a wrong side failure. Signalling and communications are the key systems that provide controls and defences to assure railway operations avoid a wrong side failure risk.
|2010 - March - Moving Towards Goal - Based Safety Management|
Dr. Holger M Becht PhD, BInfTech(Hons)
Safety & RAM Manager; Ansaldo STS, Brisbane
In virtually all safety-critical industries the operators of systems have to demonstrate a systematic and thorough consideration of safety. This is generally done through the application of safety standards as part of the development of safety critical systems.
Many safety assurance standards (like EN50126 , IEC 61508 , DEF (Aust) 5679)  are very prescriptive. They require specific techniques, approaches or measures to be applied to achieve the safety objective without allowing the users to select a suite of techniques and measures best suited for their application and development environment. The application of prescriptive techniques can work well for some systems but can be a hindrance for others.
There has therefore been an increasing trend in many industries to demonstrate safety by assuring certain goals have been achieved, rather than simply following prescriptive standards.
Goal-based standards do not specify the means of achieving compliance but sets goals that allow for alternative ways of achieving compliance. Goal-based safety standards are now a reality and applied in the medical industry and defence; examples of such standards are the UK Defence Standard 00-56 , and the UK Railway Safety Standard The Yellow Book .
|2010 - March - McGregor - Using Six Sigma to Improve Track Circuit Reliability|
Peter McGregor BEng(Elect) Grad Dip (Systems) MIRSE
Head of Signalling Design – Professional Services Division, RailCorp
Is Six Sigma just another management fad? Is it just another business opportunity for the consultancy industry? Yes, it could be if you let it. For RailCorp our six sigma journey has commenced with an initial number of projects in the Asset Management group focusing on reliability improvements which were being sought by the organisation.
In the first part of the paper I give a brief introduction to six sigma and what it is. I than go onto describe how we commenced using six sigma and how it was applied to our reliability improvement projects. In the third part of the paper I describe in more detail a project where we used some of the six sigma tools and methodology to improve the reliability of FS2500 jointless track circuits in a critical area of the RailCorp network and how using a simple clip on ferrite solved a problem with Receiver (RX) lockup.
|2010 - March - Long - Managing Rail Operations Risks – A Simpler, More Effective Process|
Chris Long MBA, B.Eng, Grad Dip IT
Despite widespread awareness of risk management techniques, there are frequently difficulties in turning that knowledge into safer railway operations. The risk process often breaks down not at the point of assessing risk values but in actively managing risks.
We are trialling a process based on a comprehensive and reliable block of data directed at showing the safety controls related to each risk. This gives personnel the information they need to properly review the safety risks which they have some responsibility for, the effectiveness of the controls, and how to best direct time and effort. Our experience so far has been promising and we believe that this may lead to better clarity, better allocation of resources, and improved safety.
|2010 - March - Haskins - The Future Of Safety Systems Management: From Reactive to Proactive|
Tom Haskins BSc Hons, PgDip, M.I.E.T, MSaRS, MCMI Australia
Parsons Brinckerhoff Pty Ltd
There is a challenge to be faced by railways: what is the future role of a safety management system in an industry that continues to evolve? This paper examines the paradigms for safety management which I believe should be the way forward, for the future of Safety Management Systems. In essence there needs to be a shift from reactive to proactive safety management, a change from top down to bottom up participation with the emphasis on sharing knowledge within a learning organisation/culture.
|2010 - June - Weerakody - Upgrading of Level crossing protection on the Public Transport Authority Network|
Don Weerakody BSc(Eng) MIRSE MIE(Aust)
Public Transport Authority WA
This paper discusses two PTA projects for upgrading of level crossing protection on the non electrified sections of the PTA network.
It is also envisaged that a new road crossing may be provided in close proximity to the Fremantle boat harbour with boom gates and double pedestrian gates on either side of the road crossing. This crossing has been proposed by the organisers of the 2011 ISAF Sailing World Championship (which is the qualification event for the 2012 London Olympic Games sailing events) as an alternative access to road and pedestrian traffic during the championship. This event will be held in December 2011.
This paper will discuss the reasons for upgrading the protection and details of the technology used at each crossing.
|2010 - July - Taylor and van der Merwe - Protection of Track Maintenance Equipment Final Format|
Barry Taylor and Henk van der Merwe
In the past 10 years, throughput on Rio Tinto's iron ore railways in the Pilbara has more than doubled. To address this rapid increase in traffic, the Integrated Control Signalling System (ICSS) with Automatic Train Protection (ATP) and in-cab signals that was introduced on the Hamersley Iron main line in 1998 now covers all main lines. This provides drivers with information on their route many kilometres ahead, with the confidence that their speed and authority limit will be supervised by ATP.
On most railways, movement authority information and protection afforded to rail mounted maintenance equipment falls well below this standard. This wide gap in the level of protection for different types of movements had become unacceptable. Therefore, Rio Tinto has recently upgraded its Train Control System to improve the protection for hi-rail (road/rail) vehicles and track maintenance equipment moving on the main line. While this has not yet achieved an equivalent standard of protection as for main line trains, it is a significant advance from previous practice. This paper examines the various steps involved in the development of this project, improvements that were found necessary along the way, and opportunities for further enhancements to provide a safe working environment for operators of track maintenance and inspection equipment.
|2010 - July - Tan - Rapid Modernisation of Urban Passenger Rollingstock|
Jason Tan Bach of Eng (Elec.), Bach of Com (Management, HRM)
Electrical Engineer (Public Transport Authority)
The availability of railcars and the ability to meet the growth in public transport patrons in Western Australia over the long term has been an important topic of discussion in the past few years. While the mechanical and even the traction systems of the railcars may live to their design life, the technology of the auxiliary control and communications equipment on board will become obsolete. This paper discusses the 'RAPID' project that the Public Transport Authority of Western Australia embarked on in order to completely overhaul the communications systems on board their existing 15 year old fleet of Electric Multiple Units. It demonstrates how the project was able to quickly modernise the aging look, feel and control of the railcars with state of the art technology and functionality, allowing the railcars to be available for use to the extent of, and even beyond, their design life.
|2010 - July - Sanchez - ATP Update Transponder Positioning|
Luis Sanchez Bach of Electronic Eng (HON), MIEAUST
Public Transport Authority of Western Australia
The PTAWA (Public Transport Authority of Western Australia) introduced the Ansaldo L10,000 ATP system (also known as ATC1 or EBICAB) into its rail network in 1990/1991.
From the beginning, a point of contention between the PTA and its contractors has been the positioning of ATP Update Transponders. The number and placement of transponders required to minimise the "delay effects" caused by the use of discrete information points as "infill", or the need for updates at all, will be examined.
This paper will demonstrate the different methods used by the PTAWA to determine the positioning and number of ATP Update Transponders between signals.
The use of Update Transponders as "Infill" seems also to be losing favour in the signalling world due to the perceived delay effects caused by intermittent systems. A new method of determining Update Transponder positioning is proposed which demonstrates that intermittent systems can provide good performance at a reasonable cost.
Most of this document and calculations assume the use of the Ansaldo L10,000 system as installed in the PTA. Many of the concepts and ideas may be directly translated to other intermittent ATP systems such as ETCS level 1.
|2010 - July - Godber - Train Detection Principles|
Tony Godber CEng, BSc(Eng) MIET, MIRSE
To perform its safety critical functions, a signalling system for a rail network needs to have timely information on the position of trains and the occupancy status of track sections. This is essential to perform its primary function of preventing collisions and derailments.
The fundamental requirements of train detection systems are described, including proof of train absence for setting of points and operation of signals, proof of train presence for additional controls and updating of train position for network management and customer information purposes.
Existing technologies for track based train detection, including track circuits and axle counters, are then discussed, including many limitations on their use and application and associated safety risks. The and complications arising from the interface with other engineering disciplines, in particular the permanent way and traction power supplies are briefly explored. Consideration of train and communications based alternatives is then covered, including a discussion of whether this is the future for train detection.
|2009 - Nov - Wardrop & Sueess - Strategies to Increase Line Capacity and Reduce Travel Time in a Mixed Passenger and Freight Corridor|
Alex Wardrop B Sc (Hons) UNSW, M Eng Sc (Traffic Engineering) UNSW, FCILT
Principal Engineer, Operations, WorleyParsons
Pascal Süess M Sc ETH
Engineer, Rail Operations and Planning, WorleyParsons
Many railway lines in Australia are used by a broad spectrum of train services including long distance passenger, interurban passenger, suburban passenger, intermodal freight, general freight and bulk freight. Whereas once there was a strict train service hierarchy so that the long distance passenger train had supremacy and freight came last, nowadays all rail traffics aspire to delay-free passage. This is driven by the need for passenger rail to carry more customers and for freight rail to win business in competitive markets, all with the aim of making Australia more economically efficient and more environmentally sound.
The purpose of signalling and track layouts should be to meet a particular rail traffic task from which should flow signalling system performance specifications. Line capacity is dependent upon relative sectional travel times and signal clearance times. This paper examines the differences between freight and passenger train performance, train lengths, braking capability and how these affect signalling clearances and, ultimately, line capacity. It then discusses which infrastructure solutions can suitably address the particular issues of a mixed-use corridor and provide not only more capacity, but also reduced freight train transit times.
Optimising mixed-use rail corridors requires a view of the railway as an integrated system. Upgrading, and therefore the associated funding, should thus flexibly embrace infrastructure, rolling stock and technology.
|2009 - Nov - Thompson - Implemenating Metro Signalling Systems to Conventional Urban Railways|
Nick Thompson Signalling Operations Manager
This paper is attempting to answer the question of how to move towards a "Metro" style of rail operation, from the traditional state wide based urban systems of today.
Australia has a rapidly increasing population and current government projections suggest that by 2050, Australia could reach 33M people #1. This equates to over a 40% increase in population from today, and further Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane accounts for 45% of the total Australian population #1. This makes our "big brown land" one of the most major urbanised population spreads in the world. If the current trend is maintained, the need to have higher density public transport systems becomes an essential requirement. So, for rail passenger transport in the major cities of Australia, it is contended that there are only two realistic options: either build new rail lines with the associated timeframes which are typically 10 years+, not including land purchases and public consultations. In NSW for example the Parramatta – Chatswood rail project, took over 11 years to open and that was only ½ of the line, #2. The recent suspension of the Sydney metro project again highlights just how difficult it is to build new railways. The alternative and far more attractive option is to "sweat" more out of the existing rail network.
This paper attempts to deal with the "sweat" option and also explains how some other international railways have solved similar issues and the related implementation challenges. In essence there is no one single solution to this problem, just good sound system engineering practices. It is also recognised that new railways will still be required to service new areas of development and solve the ultimate rail capacity problem, but in the short term there is much engineers can do: and the writer believes its time for the IRSE and the rail community to properly debate the real issues of future rail passenger capacity.
A strategy for rail capacity improvements using modern signalling techniques could prove very cost effective and allow time to properly consider new rail lines and alternative public transport systems to meet the ever increasing demand, for what in reality is a four hour per weekday problem.
|2009 - Nov - Palazzi -The Big Freight Bypass : Melbourne to Brisbane via the Inland|
Bill Palazzi BEng (Elec) Hons, CEng, MIRSE
Rail Section Executive, Australia-Pacific, Parsons Brinckerhoff
study to determine the economic benefits and likely success of a new multi-billion dollar standard gauge inland railway between Melbourne and Brisbane.
At present, the only north-south rail corridor in eastern Australia runs along the coastline via Sydney. A view has been held by various parties that an inland route through the Central West of NSW has the potential to slash the time it takes to move freight from Melbourne to Brisbane by rail. This would then improve the competitive position of rail transport on this corridor, resulting in a shift of freight from road to rail.
This paper has set out the work thus far on the Inland Rail Alignment Study. An overview is provided of the study to date, including the technical and financial/economic aspects, and outlines some of the key considerations and issues.
Through a robust and thorough process, the study team has analysed a significant number of different alignments, representing over 50,000 different alternatives between Melbourne and Brisbane, to select two options that represent the most promising alignments. These two options are currently being analysed and refined to determine, in conjunction with the economic and financial analysis, the optimum alignment for the corridor.
The final report of the study team will be submitted to the Federal Government in December 2009 and is likely to be published in early 2010.
|2009 - Nov - Imrie - Freight in the City - Sharing Tracks|
Ian Imrie F.I.E (Aust), F.A.I.C.D
Plateway Pty Limited
This paper considers the positive and negative forces influencing shared corridor freight traffic. Possible actions are proposed that would mitigate the negative forces and make the freight service attractive to customers, urban society and importantly, both passenger and freight operators.
|2009 - Nov - Hawes & Magyla - Sydney Metropolitan Freight Network|
Eddie Hawes HTEC, TMIEAust CEngT, IEng, MIRSE, MIET, GCCI
Dr Tomas Magyla PhD, MSc(Hons), BSc, MIRSE, AIPM, APM, MIET, MAET
The paper describes the proposed solutions currently in development, to provide for the separation of signalling and control functionality of the Metropolitan Freight Network from RailCorp to ARTC – to be integrated as part of the existing Network Control Centre South, at Junee. The concept of operation is being revised with the introduction of dedicated 650 m shuttle trains that will operate between the ports and various freight yards in the outer Sydney suburbs. Trains will operate in ‘push-pull’ mode with a locomotive at each end. To facilitate this, the layouts at Botany Yard, Cooks River and Mascot are being remodelled and extensively re-signalled.
The paper explores the various options and associated technologies considered for the signalling of the revised layouts. The selection of the current preferred solution is detailed, including the control system link arrangements both to the ARTC and RailCorp systems. Key to implementation of the project is agreement with RailCorp on the interfaces between the two networks and cognisance of the operational issues and requirements associated with the two networks operating concurrently along the shared corridor between Marrickville and Campsie.
|2009 - Nov - Formenton - Improving Operational Performance of Freight Trains using Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking|
Chris Formenton Bach of Eng (Mech.), Grad Dip Comp. Eng., RPEQ
Principal Brake Engineer, Queensland Rail
For nearly 140 years the mainstay of train braking has been the automatic air brake system invented by George Westinghouse. Although notable improvements have steadily increased the reliability, safety and effectiveness of the air brake there is only so much that can be done to a system that is reliant on compressed air as both the control and energy medium.
The last 15 years has seen a slow up-take in the use of a relatively new technology for controlling the brake system on freight trains. The new technology is Electronically Controlled Pneumatic braking commonly referred to as ECP braking.
This paper intends to detail the benefits of ECP braking. The main advantages of ECP include, but are not limited to: providing shorter stopping distances; improving train service cycle times; increasing network capacity; enhancing rail safety; fuel savings; as well as reducing wear and tear on rollingstock.
ECP braking can improve both train safety and operations by: reducing in-train forces, making train handling simpler, continuously recharging the train brake system, and providing shorter stopping distances independent of train length. This is because the ECP system communicates electronically with every vehicle in the train. It not only controls the simultaneous gradual application and release of brakes but also advises the driver of the status of each and every vehicle in the train. Combined with Wired Distributed Power (WDP) further improvements can be made to enhance the supply of compressed air through a train’s brake system, reducing in-train forces and bringing about new strategies for managing trains.
|2009 - Nov - Burton - How many interlockings does it take to signal a freight train?|
Noel Burton BSc MIRSE
Westinghouse Rail Systems Australia
The title of this technical paper may be a little misleading but like all good attention grabbing headlines has at least some connection with the story. The content of this paper details the re-interlocking of the Hornsby station area. As the layout at Hornsby is extremely complicated as well as compact, previously four Solid State Interlockings (SSIs) were required to control the area. To need so many of the relatively large SSI interlocking in an area small enough to be bridged by a single freight train, indicates that the original resignalling project was quite a challenge. The paper includes an overview of the original SSI implementation and the engineering journey to commission the new WESTLOCK interlocking to eventually reduce that number.
|2009 - Michael Magney - Northern Sydney Freight Corridor|
Transport Infrastructure Development Corporation
The NSFC Program of works has the potential to transform east coast freight operations whilst also offering very significant improvements in Main North Line passenger capacity. Currently, rail is a small player in the east coast interstate general (containerised) freight market with about 13% of volumes overall. If the whole land transport network is to operate effectively, rail needs to do its share of the heavy lifting in the general freight market.
There has been significant investment in the east coast interstate network over the last 5 years and resolving Main North Line freight capacity restrictions (Strathfield – Broadmeadow) will complete the missing link, benefitting the whole network. Our forecasts suggest that over the next 10 years demand for freight train movements on the Main North Line Corridor will increase by between 1.7 and three times, driven by economic growth and a shift to rail as a result of increases in fuel and labour costs. A commitment to a long term investment strategy for this corridor will provide the necessary capacity for rail to lifts its mode share to between 35 – 40%
The NSW Government obtained $15 million funding under the Australian Government's Nation Building Program for the feasibility assessment, planning and scoping of works to meet long term freight requirements on the Main North Line. TIDC was commissioned in August 2008 to undertake this work. Inthe mo st recent budget, the Australian Government has committed $840 million through the Nation Building Program towards the Northern Sydney Freight Corridor Program of works.
|2009 - July - Nellai and Lusty - Radio Link for use in Computer Based Interlocking - Microlok|
Somasundaram Nellai B.S (Eng Tech), MS (IM), MIET, AMIRSE
Ansaldo STS Australia Pty Ltd
Anthony Stephen Lusty BE (Electrical), GDip Railway Signalling, MIRSE
Ansaldo STS Australia Pty Ltd
The introduction of Processor Based Interlockings (PBIs) to the railway network has led to the requirement for vital serial data communication between distributed PBIs.
Traditionally, vital serial data has been carried via closed/hardwired communication systems (eg copper or Fibre Optic), which often involve significant installation costs. The Ansaldo STS developed Microlok Vital link over Radio (MVR) provides an efficient and cost effective alternative.
The MVR is a point to point, open transmission communication system, which transports vital serial data between distributed PBI applications in low to medium density railway networks. The MVR has been specifically developed to meet the requirements of conventional vital communication, addressing all the requirements for the safe communication of vital data.
The paper outlines the system concept, the development process, challenges, independent safety validation and successful implementation of new MVR systems in rail networks.